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Title: The Opioid Epidemic as a Platform for Interprofessional Education
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : The purpose of this mixed method, cohort study is to explore the collaborative environment of an interprofessional experience through a diverse seven membered panel using the opioid epidemic as a model for interprofessional collaboration. Quantitative assessment will be obtained through the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-9A) administered pre and ISVS-9B post panel discussion followed by qualitative measures of focus group discussions related to the individual responsibility and severity of the opioid epidemic as well as modeling of interprofessional communication. A final exit satisfaction survey for future panel development will also be obtained including general demographics of participants.
Target Participants: Students of RHCHP (Nursing, Counseling, OT, PT, Pharmacy)
Collaborative Partners: Faculty from the Schools within RHCHP (Pharmacy, RN, Physical Therapy, Counseling and Creighton-Regis OTD pathway)
Development History: Prescription drug misuse and abuse is a serious problem both nationally and here in Colorado1. Each year, overdose deaths from opioid painkillers alone number approximately 17,000 nationally and 300 in Colorado1. Such deaths are now more common than alcohol-related traffic fatalities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls prescription drug overdose deaths one of the four most serious epidemics facing the nation2, 3. As recently as 2010-2011, Colorado ranked #2 in the nation among young adults ages 12-24 for self-admitted, non-medical use of prescription painkillers1. Young adults make up a significant population in the Regis community and efforts should be made to focus on education about and prevention of substance abuse.
The Institute of Medicine (2011) estimated that 100 million American adults are impacted by chronic pain, which includes people who reported having “severe pain, moderate pain, joint pain, arthritis, or functional limitation.”4 A treatment plan for managing chronic pain includes multimodal approaches (psychotherapy, behavior modification, electrical stimulation, massage therapy and medicines including opioids), among others4,5,6,. In tandem, the commitment to make Colorado the healthiest state includes efforts focused on the prevention of misuse of prescription pain medication.7 As a college of health professionals and a training institution, there is a responsibility to generate awareness and provoke action in our students, faculty and staff regarding the serious epidemic of prescription drug misuse/abuse that will touch all their practices in some capacity due in part to the bane of chronic pain. In addition, it is a great opportunity to highlight the benefits of interprofessional collaboration. By sharing this vital information through the panel discussion and education, RHCHP is a leader in combatting this real issue of opioid abuse and misuse in Colorado and nationally.
In preparation for the evolving interprofessional approach in health care practice, in educational settings health profession students are expected to learn about, from, and with each other through the interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives.9 To guide the curricula, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) was formed to facilitate team-based healthcare approaches in health professions schools to optimize patient and healthcare outcomes.10 Formed in 2009, the IPEC encouraged influential partnerships in the academic setting and outlined core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice. However, due to its nascent history, outcome measures for these competencies have yet to be established, and the extent and expectation of interprofessional education remain unclear.11 Without a clear collective mandate for IPE, university initiatives have been sporadic in nature.
It is expected that interprofessional education will continue to evolve as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2011 includes specific provisions for both team-based healthcare and education.12 With intention on producing progressive healthcare graduates and leaders who are capable of understanding the changing healthcare landscape RHCHP has a focus to prioritize interprofessional collaboration. In the spirit of the IPEC organization and the interprofessional approach needed to address opioid misuse and abuse, this research project focuses on the utility of interprofessional panel and roundtable discussion experience to foster a comprehensive, collaborative effort to tackle the epidemic of opioid misuse and abuse that will have applicability for RHCHP future curricular efforts
Project Brief: Interested students will participate in a two-hour interprofessional panel and roundtable discussion. Upon entry to the event, participants will be assigned a color based on their professional discipline and asked to seat themselves at one of 20 roundtables with the request to disperse themselves such that each roundtable has representatives from the five RHCHP professional disciplines. Once seated, all participants will be assigned a number code portrayed on their seat that correlates to their pre and post test assessments. The codes will not contain personal identifiers, yet link their quantitative data to the participant demographics and qualitative assessment score.
Participants will be assessed by the ISVS-9A prior to and ISVS-9B at the end of the event. Focus groups consisting of five to eight students and faculty from different programs (OT, PT, Pharmacy, Nursing and Counseling) will engage in discussions regarding interprofessional engagement of the opioid epidemic, strategies learned from the panel, description of how and to what level participants understanding changed from the experience prior to completing a satisfaction survey and conclusion of the event, for the qualitative data.
Participation Level :
Assessed Outcomes: Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-9A) prior to and the ISVS-9B
King, G., Orchard, C., Hossein, K., Avery, L. Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-21) and Development of 9-Item Equivalent Versions. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2016; 36(3): 171-176.
Lessons Learned: Time efficiency of the event, capturing the qualitative data in round table discussion.
Future Plans: To focus the keynote speaker retaining an opioid victim who is also a healthcare worker, but focus the story to retain time efficiency. Include student ambassadors from each school to assist with data collection.
Needs Resources: Support from the Faculty of each School as well as upper administration support.
Strategies: Potential benefits include: Improved awareness of opioid epidemic. An increase of socialization and improving the value of interprofessional education. Opportunity and experience to participate and improve persons’ ability to communicate interprofessionally with all RHCHP healthcare programs included. Improved ownership and responsibility to address the opioid epidemic through role specific knowledge and skills development.
References: 1Courtesy of the Colorado Consortium for Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention website, http://www.corxconsortium.org/
2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Increases in drug and opioid overdose deaths – United States, 2000-2014. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm?s_cid=mm6450a3_w. Accessed August 11, 2016.
3Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Injury prevention and control: Opioid overdose. State data. http://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/statedeaths.html. Accessed July 22, 2016
4IOM Report from the Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. Relieving Pain in America: a Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education and Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172&page=1.4Pain mgmt. society
5 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain – United States, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/rr/rr6501e1.htm. Accessed July 22, 2016.
6Chou R., Fanciullo GJ, Fine PG, et al. Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. J Pain, 2009;10(2),113-130.
7Colorado Plan to Reduce Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/PW_Colorado-Plan-to-Reduce-Prescription-Drug-Abuse_0.pdf
8King, G., Orchard, C., Hossein, K., Avery, L. Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-21) and Development of 9-Item Equivalent Versions. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2016; 36(3): 171-176.
9Bainbridge L., Wood, VI. The power of prepositions: A taxonomy for interprofessional education. J Interp Care. 2013;27(2),131-136.
10World Health Organization (WHO). (2010). Framework for action on interprofessional education & collaborative practice. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_HRH_HPN_10.3_eng.pdf. Accessed August 2, 2016.
11Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC). What is Interprofessional Education (IPE)? https://ipecollaborative.org/About_IPEC.html. Accessed August 2, 2016.
12Zorek J, Raehl, C. Interprofessional education accreditation standards in the USA: A comparative analysis. J Interp Care. 2013;27:123-130.