UPDATE: The ACAPT Clinical Reasoning Curricula & Assessment Consortium (CRCAC)
Teaching Compendium Task Group has been working on a systematic review in 2021 entitled "Effects of educational interventions designed to develop physical therapist learners’ clinical reasoning" and
has started synthesizing the qualitative and quantitative data separately from the 24 identified research articles.
Do you recommend other articles? Tell us at email@example.com
Contact: Sarah Jameson
Author / Reporter:Sarah Jameson
Title: 3-part year-long IPE education for 6 professions
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : Using IPEC core competencies promote a collective understanding of interprofessional practice that will translate into optimal patient and family outcomes
Target Participants: PT, OT, Nursing, Clinical Psychology, PA and ATC
Collaborative Partners: Faculty representing each discipline in the Graduate School of Health Sciences
Development History: Chatham began the intergration of IPE in 2008
Project Brief: Fall event, 3 hrs: Low roles challenge course with students in IP communities (Teams & teamwork) and Communication)
Spring event, 2 hrs: faculty led IP group (10-15 students) discussion of a complex patient ( Roles & responsibilities and values & ethics)
Invited scholar 1.5 hrs: Will address and selected healthcare issue (2021 racism in medicine)
Participation Level :
Assessed Outcomes: Interprofessional Education Evaluation of Confidence (IPEEC) has been piloted
Lessons Learned: Challenge First semester student readiness to learn
University support, participation is not mandatory in all programs
Lessons learned: students prefer small group interaction, student self-assessment of competence is not consistent with experience, Curriculum reflection and revision is critical
Future Plans: We have recently added the masters in ATC program and will need to revise our program to ensure relevence to all disciplins
Needs Resources: Funding for programing, administrative assistance, and research assistance
Contact: Samantha Brown
Author / Reporter:Samantha Brown
Title: IPE Workshop
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : Allow students in different health disciplines to work as a team and negotiate roles while learning what education and expertise each has to offer. Allowing students from different health disciplines to have early contact and experience in leading and communicating as a team and develop a better understanding of one another’s education and knowledge before going into practice in hopes that early contact will facilitate more appropriate referrals, teams, and use of resources in practice.
Target Participants: Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Social Work and Physical Therapy students
Collaborative Partners: University of Rhode Island (pharmacy, nursing, PT), Rhode Island College (nursing and SW), and Brown University (medicine)
Development History: This workshop initiated with Pharmacy and Nursing at URI and grew to incorporate the other disciplines and institutions with help from a RWJ partners investing in nursing’s future grant. PT has been involved since Spring 2013. The workshop takes place once a semester.
Project Brief: Over 400 students, faculty, and patient actors make this event possible. It is divided into 2 half day workshops Each half day is comprised of 3 different activities: a team building activity, a standardized patient assessment, and a complicated patient case discussion.
Assessed Outcomes: Assessment tools have varied over the years and some have included:
Positive student and faculty feedback. Student feedback using modified SPICE-R tool favors team learning and patient care.
Lessons Learned: Students need to be matched at the appropriate stage in their learning so that all can contribute and have a positive learning experience.
Future Plans: Continue the workshop and develop new clinical cases as well as work to develop opportunities to collaborate in similar groups while on clinical placements.
Needs Resources: Space, patient actors, faculty
Strategies: Faculty and facilitator training for all those participating in the workshop. For example, how to lead an effective debriefing session.
References: MacDonnell CP, Rege SV, Misto K, et al, Instructional Design and Assessment. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2012; 76(8) Article 154.
Contact: Myles Quiben, PT, PhD, DPT, MS, GCS, NCS
Author / Reporter:Cynthia Carroll, MA LPC: Cynthia.firstname.lastname@example.org
Title: Establishing a Team - IPE Workshop
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : This activity is the first IPE workshop hosted by our campus. The purpose is to introduce the concept of Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and the competencies established by the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) and a main focus to teach and value the roles and responsibilities of the various professions involved in our IPE at UNTHSC.
Target Participants: The participants of our IPE workshop include the following professions in their first year in their respective programs:
• Physical Therapy
• Osteopathic Medicine
• Physician Assistant
• Public Health
• Healthcare Administration
• Social Work
• Speech-language Pathology
• Athletic Training
• Dietetics and Nutrition
• Biomedical Sciences
Collaborative Partners: • All schools and colleges within the UNTHSC campus (Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, School of Health Professions, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, System College of Pharmacy, School of Public Health)
• Texas Cristian University (Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences, College of Science and Engineering)
• University of Texas at Arlington (Athletic Training)
• Texas Woman’s University (Dietetics and Nutrition)
• Texas Wesleyan University (Athletic Training, Counseling)
Development History: History
Interprofessional education and practice IPE/P has been identified as a primary initiative in the University of North Texas Health Science Center’s institutional strategic plan. The Interprofessional Education and Practice Department was implemented in 2012 to lead the UNTHSC strategic initiatives to create an institutional culture of IPE across its five colleges/schools (Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, UNT System College of Pharmacy, School of Health Professions, School of Public Health, and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences). The Department of IPE/P operates on a department budget funded through the Provost’s office.
An institutional model utilizing Dean appointed IPE coordinators from each of the five UNTHSC College/Schools is used to achieve active and equal IPE representation across all colleges/schools. IPE coordinators work collaboratively with IPE coordinators from the other colleges/schools through an IPE curriculum committee. IPE coordinators are at the faculty or associate dean level, share a common set of roles and responsibilities, and have a portion of their time paid through the Department of Interprofessional Education and Practice to ensure active participation. The colleges/schools collectively discuss shared or common IPE curriculum and IPE student activities through the institutional IPE curriculum committee. IPE coordinators communicate about the IPE initiatives with their colleges/schools and assist the Director of Interprofessional Education and Practice in successful implementation of institutional IPE strategic initiatives.
UNTHSC IPE Philosophy
Effective collaboration among health professions teams is a factor in improving patient safety, the overall patient experience and the health of the nation. Therefore, we believe that IPE/P is an essential component to the education and training of today’s health and healthcare professions students. IPE/P is a partnership among the UNTHSC colleges and schools working with the practice community and collaborating universities, which enhances the student and graduate’s experience.
IPE/P Guiding Principles
• IPE/P should be integrated into each college/school’s curriculum, begin with the initial year of a student’s healthcare education and be reinforced across all years of education and training.
• IPE/P experiences must be leveled appropriately based on student and program readiness.
• The Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) IPE Core Competency Domains represent a common framework through which collaborative practice competencies can be addressed across health professions.
o IPE Values/Ethics
o Interprofessional Communication
o Teams and Teamwork
• IPE/P faculty development and collaborative practice continuing education for the practice community are vital to creating a culture of IPE/P.
• IPE/P outcomes must be assessed for program effectiveness and program refinement must be ongoing.
Project Brief: Title: Establishing a Team
• Students will demonstrate value and respect for interprofessional teammates through considerate reflection of the unique contributions of the professions, so that students develop a foundation of collaboration.
• Students will reflect upon issues with patient safety and identify errors that could have been prevented with better collaboration, so that students understand the importance of effective teamwork.
• Students will be able to articulate the purpose and value of Interprofessional Competencies.
• Students will apply principles of effective teamwork and communication by creating a solution to an interprofessional dilemma.
Assessed Outcomes: Our department assesses for objectives met and quality of the workshop. Student responses show a positive perception toward IPE workshops. Students are learning to respect one another’s professions and building an appreciation for interprofessional teams and collaborative practice. Our overall responses were extremely positive. Scores were either 90% or above, except when asked about whether students looked forward to another IPE workshop, of which only 86% responded yes.
The IPE activity is associated with a year 1 course in the PT curriculum, wherein students are asked to complete a reflection paper on their IPE experiences.
Lessons Learned: Challenges for IPE are foremost related to logistics. Selecting time and location that meets each college and schools needs is challenging.
Leveling the content of each workshop is also a challenge. The diversity of education and experience for each college and schools’ students can make it difficult when deciding upon the objectives of the workshop. We want the content to challenge students, but not to intimidate them.
While most of our responses are positive, we find that for students who respond unfavorably toward IPE felt as though their facilitator did not demonstrate IPE competencies. We find that facilitation is a key factor in whether students leave the workshops eager for more IPE opportunities. The challenge is to bring faculty facilitators up to speed on the IPEC competencies and to demonstrate them both in and outside of IPE workshops. Our department is challenged to create a robust faculty development program on IPE that benefits the outcomes of the IPE workshops.
Future Plans: UNTHSC has an online faculty development module on IPE. Our next steps are to host in-person faculty development on IPE. Our university is sending staff from the Department of Interprofessional Education and Practice and the Center for Innovative Learning to the NEXUS’s T3 Training program and will bring back lessons learned to establish a robust faculty development program around IPE.
Needs Resources: UNTHSC needs protected time for faculty to invest in IPE development. Faculty have also expressed desiring recognition for time placed toward IPE. Our department has discussed how IPE involvement could impact faculty promotion and tenure.
Strategies: Until we are able to receive the above needs and resources, our department plans to incorporate student feedback into how we adjust and redesign our workshops and to invest in faculty development training.
References: Core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice: 2016 update. Washington, DC:
Interprofessional Education Collaborative.
Contact: Holly H. Wise, PT, PhD
Author / Reporter:Holly Wise
Title: Alignment of an Interprofessional Student Learning Experience with a Hospital Quality Improvement Initiative
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : This innovative IPE initiative aligns clinical practice and student experiential learning while simultaneously providing a resource to health care managers for improving collaboration among staff and impacting health and system outcomes in a real-world clinical setting.
Target Participants: Health Administration
Collaborative Partners: The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) is a comprehensive academic health science center with six colleges: Dental Medicine, Graduate Studies, Health Professions, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. MUSC promotes IPE, research, and patient care and has established a university-wide Office of Interprofessional Initiatives (OII) to foster, support, and encourage interprofessional initiatives.
Development History: In 2013, OII was asked to participate as one of eight Nexus Innovations Network sites for the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education. After working closely with the National Center over the course of one year to design a potential study, the OII enlisted support from the academic medical center administration, practitioners, teaching faculty, research/health economists, students, and staff from both the academic and practice settings to design a rigorous system using TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) to implement and evaluate interprofessional team training for students and an inpatient clinical unit.
Project Brief: As a component of a required interprofessional course, groups of IP students are trained in the 5 principles of TeamSTEPPS in order to become proficient raters of team behaviors. Each student observes and rates 5-6 hours of clinical interactions. The students' observations and their comments are analyzed and shared with unit administration through a meeting and written report.
Clinical Education ,
Assessed Outcomes: Student Learning: Course Evaluations, qualitative date from student debriefs
Clinical Team Behavior Observation: Team Performance Observation Tool
Lessons Learned: Students prefer a flipped classroom approach to learning TeamSTEPPS rather than the traditional lecture format.
Students rated rated this novel program with hospital observations more highly than our traditional interprofessional course with respect to 1) the employment of teamwork skills, 2) appreciation of interprofessional collaboration, 3) knowledge of other professions' roles and responsibilities, and 4) knowledge of their own roles in interprofessional work.
Needs Resources: Clinical and Academic champions critical to success.
References: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2016). TeamSTEPPS: Strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/teamstepps/index.html.
Contact: Shelene Thomas
Author / Reporter:email@example.com
Title: The Opioid Epidemic as a Platform for Interprofessional Education
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : The purpose of this mixed method, cohort study is to explore the collaborative environment of an interprofessional experience through a diverse seven membered panel using the opioid epidemic as a model for interprofessional collaboration. Quantitative assessment will be obtained through the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-9A) administered pre and ISVS-9B post panel discussion followed by qualitative measures of focus group discussions related to the individual responsibility and severity of the opioid epidemic as well as modeling of interprofessional communication. A final exit satisfaction survey for future panel development will also be obtained including general demographics of participants.
Target Participants: Students of RHCHP (Nursing, Counseling, OT, PT, Pharmacy)
Collaborative Partners: Faculty from the Schools within RHCHP (Pharmacy, RN, Physical Therapy, Counseling and Creighton-Regis OTD pathway)
Development History: Prescription drug misuse and abuse is a serious problem both nationally and here in Colorado1. Each year, overdose deaths from opioid painkillers alone number approximately 17,000 nationally and 300 in Colorado1. Such deaths are now more common than alcohol-related traffic fatalities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls prescription drug overdose deaths one of the four most serious epidemics facing the nation2, 3. As recently as 2010-2011, Colorado ranked #2 in the nation among young adults ages 12-24 for self-admitted, non-medical use of prescription painkillers1. Young adults make up a significant population in the Regis community and efforts should be made to focus on education about and prevention of substance abuse.
The Institute of Medicine (2011) estimated that 100 million American adults are impacted by chronic pain, which includes people who reported having “severe pain, moderate pain, joint pain, arthritis, or functional limitation.”4 A treatment plan for managing chronic pain includes multimodal approaches (psychotherapy, behavior modification, electrical stimulation, massage therapy and medicines including opioids), among others4,5,6,. In tandem, the commitment to make Colorado the healthiest state includes efforts focused on the prevention of misuse of prescription pain medication.7 As a college of health professionals and a training institution, there is a responsibility to generate awareness and provoke action in our students, faculty and staff regarding the serious epidemic of prescription drug misuse/abuse that will touch all their practices in some capacity due in part to the bane of chronic pain. In addition, it is a great opportunity to highlight the benefits of interprofessional collaboration. By sharing this vital information through the panel discussion and education, RHCHP is a leader in combatting this real issue of opioid abuse and misuse in Colorado and nationally.
In preparation for the evolving interprofessional approach in health care practice, in educational settings health profession students are expected to learn about, from, and with each other through the interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives.9 To guide the curricula, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) was formed to facilitate team-based healthcare approaches in health professions schools to optimize patient and healthcare outcomes.10 Formed in 2009, the IPEC encouraged influential partnerships in the academic setting and outlined core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice. However, due to its nascent history, outcome measures for these competencies have yet to be established, and the extent and expectation of interprofessional education remain unclear.11 Without a clear collective mandate for IPE, university initiatives have been sporadic in nature.
It is expected that interprofessional education will continue to evolve as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2011 includes specific provisions for both team-based healthcare and education.12 With intention on producing progressive healthcare graduates and leaders who are capable of understanding the changing healthcare landscape RHCHP has a focus to prioritize interprofessional collaboration. In the spirit of the IPEC organization and the interprofessional approach needed to address opioid misuse and abuse, this research project focuses on the utility of interprofessional panel and roundtable discussion experience to foster a comprehensive, collaborative effort to tackle the epidemic of opioid misuse and abuse that will have applicability for RHCHP future curricular efforts
Project Brief: Interested students will participate in a two-hour interprofessional panel and roundtable discussion. Upon entry to the event, participants will be assigned a color based on their professional discipline and asked to seat themselves at one of 20 roundtables with the request to disperse themselves such that each roundtable has representatives from the five RHCHP professional disciplines. Once seated, all participants will be assigned a number code portrayed on their seat that correlates to their pre and post test assessments. The codes will not contain personal identifiers, yet link their quantitative data to the participant demographics and qualitative assessment score.
Participants will be assessed by the ISVS-9A prior to and ISVS-9B at the end of the event. Focus groups consisting of five to eight students and faculty from different programs (OT, PT, Pharmacy, Nursing and Counseling) will engage in discussions regarding interprofessional engagement of the opioid epidemic, strategies learned from the panel, description of how and to what level participants understanding changed from the experience prior to completing a satisfaction survey and conclusion of the event, for the qualitative data.
Participation Level :
Assessed Outcomes: Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-9A) prior to and the ISVS-9B
King, G., Orchard, C., Hossein, K., Avery, L. Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-21) and Development of 9-Item Equivalent Versions. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2016; 36(3): 171-176.
Lessons Learned: Time efficiency of the event, capturing the qualitative data in round table discussion.
Future Plans: To focus the keynote speaker retaining an opioid victim who is also a healthcare worker, but focus the story to retain time efficiency. Include student ambassadors from each school to assist with data collection.
Needs Resources: Support from the Faculty of each School as well as upper administration support.
Strategies: Potential benefits include: Improved awareness of opioid epidemic. An increase of socialization and improving the value of interprofessional education. Opportunity and experience to participate and improve persons’ ability to communicate interprofessionally with all RHCHP healthcare programs included. Improved ownership and responsibility to address the opioid epidemic through role specific knowledge and skills development.
References: 1Courtesy of the Colorado Consortium for Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention website, http://www.corxconsortium.org/
2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Increases in drug and opioid overdose deaths – United States, 2000-2014. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm?s_cid=mm6450a3_w. Accessed August 11, 2016.
3Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. Injury prevention and control: Opioid overdose. State data. http://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/statedeaths.html. Accessed July 22, 2016
4IOM Report from the Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. Relieving Pain in America: a Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education and Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.
http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172&page=1.4Pain mgmt. society
5 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain – United States, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/rr/rr6501e1.htm. Accessed July 22, 2016.
6Chou R., Fanciullo GJ, Fine PG, et al. Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. J Pain, 2009;10(2),113-130.
7Colorado Plan to Reduce Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/PW_Colorado-Plan-to-Reduce-Prescription-Drug-Abuse_0.pdf
8King, G., Orchard, C., Hossein, K., Avery, L. Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-21) and Development of 9-Item Equivalent Versions. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2016; 36(3): 171-176.
9Bainbridge L., Wood, VI. The power of prepositions: A taxonomy for interprofessional education. J Interp Care. 2013;27(2),131-136.
10World Health Organization (WHO). (2010). Framework for action on interprofessional education & collaborative practice. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_HRH_HPN_10.3_eng.pdf. Accessed August 2, 2016.
11Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC). What is Interprofessional Education (IPE)? https://ipecollaborative.org/About_IPEC.html. Accessed August 2, 2016.
12Zorek J, Raehl, C. Interprofessional education accreditation standards in the USA: A comparative analysis. J Interp Care. 2013;27:123-130.
Contact: Steve Jernigan
Author / Reporter:firstname.lastname@example.org
Title: Interprofessional Hospital Discharge Simulation
Purpose/Rationale for Activity : Allow for students to conduct an interprofessional discharge planning visit in a simulated hospital setting.
Target Participants: Physical Therapy students
Occupational Therapy students
Speech Language Pathology students
Collaborative Partners: All at University of Kansas Medical Center
School of Medicine
School of Health Professions (Departments of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, Occupational Therapy Education, Speech Language and Hearing)
Development History: This interprofessional collaborative practice simulation is a part of a 6-part series in the School of Medicine curriculum following a patient from an initial diagnosis with multiple myeloma through end of life. Barney 3.0 is the only interprofessional simulation associated with this series.
Project Brief: The students from the participating professions 1) brief prior to the encounter, 2) encounter the patient (a standardized patient) and his wife for the discharge visit, 3) huddle after the encounter, then 4) debrief with faculty who observed the encounter through a live audiovisual feed.
Assessed Outcomes: Mixed methods survey (piloting currently).
Lessons Learned: Authentic simulations have significant value to the learners. These are time-intensive for participating faculty debriefers. The debrief is where the majority of the robust learning takes place.
Future Plans: To add Pharmacy to the simulation around the idea of medical error.
Needs Resources: Simulation center with AV live feed capacity, participating faculty skilled with debriefing (champions from each participating profession), tech support for the technology, coordinator to create a student schedule and send the pre-simulation information and assessments to the learners, etc.
Strategies: Train your debriefers to be effective (less teaching, more inquiry).
References: Consider Center for Medical Simulation debriefing resources (e.g. Jenny Rudolph articles - Debriefing as Formative Assessment: Closing Performance Gaps in Medical Education).
Course Link: n/a
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The American Council of Academic Physical Therapy (ACAPT) is a component of the American Physical Therapy Association